Freckles are flat, circular spots
that typically range in the size of the head of a nail. The spots
develop randomly on the skin, especially after repeated exposure
to sunlight and particularly in persons of fair complexion. Freckles
are small tan spots of melanin on the exposed skin or membrane
of people with fair complexions, though rarely people of African
descent get them. Freckles are predominantly found on the face,
although they may appear on any skin exposed to the sun. Freckles
are rare on infants, and more common on children before puberty;
they are less common. When the sun's rays penetrate the skin,
they activate melanocytes which can cause freckles to become
darker and more numerous, although the distribution of melanin
is not the same. Fair hair such as blonde, or more commonly red
hair, are usually common with the genetic factor of freckles,
but none so much as fair or pale skin. Freckles vary in color
-- they may be red, yellow, tan, light-brown, brown, or black
-- but they are always darker than the skin around them since
they are due to deposits of the dark pigment called melanin.
Freckles are particularly common
in children, but often the onset of puberty causes the body to
begin to produce more melanin. The most common location on the
body for freckles to form is the nose and cheeks, though many
people have freckles on their shoulders, arms and other areas
that are frequently exposed to the sun. Sunlight hitting the
skin causes the production of more melanin in order to protect
the skin layers underneath. Dark skin that appears during pregnancy
or while on birth control pills is called melasma, or the mask
of pregnancy. Freckles are usually tan or light brown, flat,
and very small. specks or spots which develop over sun-exposed
surfaces, particularly the cheeks and nose. They are most common
in fair-skinned individuals. Sun exposure makes these patches
and spots even darker. Flat, large spots on the skin in middle
age are caused by sun exposure, and are known as age spots, liver
spots, or lentigines. Ultraviolet rays from the sun activate
pigment producing skin cells (melanocytes) to produce pigment
(melanin). Increased melanin is manifested as dark or brown spots
on the skin.
Sun exposure is also powerful
enough to change certain skin cells into dangerous skin cancers,
leading physicians to recommend protective sunscreen and clothing.
In some cases, freckles are sporadic, individual spots and sometimes
there are several grouped together, making them appear larger
and cover a greater portion of the skin. Freckles are not harmful
or the sign of a health problem. They are just pigment cells
(cells that contain color) that are contained within the skin
in small batches. Microscopically, the freckle is distinguished
by increased melanin production.Conventional treatments for freckles
include cosmetic cover-ups and bleaching creams, neither of which
have garnered satisfactory results. Cryosurgery -- A light freeze
with liquid nitrogen can be used to treat freckles. Several lasers,
especially ones that produce a green light, can lighten and eliminate
freckles safely and effectively. Tretinoin -- Sometimes used
in conjunction with other bleaching creams, tretinoin (vitamin
A acid, Retin-A) also helps to make freckles lighter when applied
over a period of time. Carbon dioxide and Erbium:YAG lasers vaporise
the surface skin thus removing the pigmented lesions.
Treatment for Freckles Tips
1. Bleaching Creams use of hydroquinone
and kojic acid are one of the beneficial treatment for freckles.
2. Cryosurgery: A light freeze
with liquid nitrogen can be used to treat freckles.
3. Chemical peels are used to
remove age spots, freckles, discoloration, wrinkles and fine
4. Intense Pulsed Light Therapy
(IPL)-IPL is one of the newer forms of facial rejuvenation.
5. Tretinoin (vitamin A acid,
Retin-A) also helps to make freckles lighter when applied over
a period of time.
6. Freckle removal is easily
achieved with lasers. The laser light is very effective and helps
in eliminating freckles safely.
7. Carbon dioxide and Erbium:YAG
lasers vaporise the surface skin thus removing the pigmented
8. Lactic acid will provide gentle
peeling effect without irritating or drying your skin.
9. Wash your face with sour milk.
10. Lemon juice is a time proven
freckle fighting remedy. It is not necessary to rub your skin
with a piece of lemon.
11. Natural parsley juice (or
parsley infusion) mixed with equal amounts of lemon juice, orange
juice, and red currant juice under your favorite cream will help
you keep your freckles invisible.